Some of Britain’s biggest industries need to shrink and they need to start thinking about how to do it now, writes Phillip Inman for the Observer.  

Hospitality is one. Manufacturing could be another. These sectors are among many to say they cannot find the workers they need at the price they have traditionally paid.

With more than 1m advertised jobs unfilled, it has become a major problem holding back the economy.

If the workers are needed, the obvious answer is to ditch the “tradition” and pay them more. And if significant pay rises are out of the question, employers could offer flexible working, more exciting career prospects and better pensions.

Yet these demands are deemed unacceptable by the industries’ bosses, who fear they will increase their overheads, push up prices more than they already have, and drive customers away.