The August riots cost pubs and nightclubs £4m in lost sales, with 4,900 venues affected, according to analysis from CGA. CGA director Ashley Cairns calculated the figure based on expected trading patterns at outlets in epicenters of the riots that were directly affected, and at venues nearby that felt a knock-on effect of customers staying at home. In total, the cost was £1.8m for bars in areas directly hit by the disturbances, and £2.2m for outlets in outlying regions. Nationally 7% of pubs and 16% of nightclubs were affected, roughly 1,100 in epicenters and 3,800 in nearby areas. Scores of pubs, clubs and restaurants were forced to close during the riots in major urban areas of England such as Croydon, Tottenham, Brixton and Ealing in London, as well as Manchester, Birmingham and Liverpool. Last month Spirit Pub Company said it closed between 30 and 40 sites over the two days of rioting, either as a company decision or when asked by police. Mitchells & Butlers said it took a £1m sales hit as a direct result of the disturbances.